The atomic restrictions imposed by the Iran nuclear deal


Iran produced tonnes before the deal. Any excess enriched uranium was either downblended to the level of natural uranium or shipped out of the country in exchange for natural uranium.

The United States said in 2015 the deal reduced Iran’s stockpile of enriched uranium by 98%, to less than the amount needed for one weapon from enough for about 10.

CUTTING OFF THE PLUTONIUM TRACK

Iran was further from being able to produce a weapon with plutonium than with uranium. It was building a heavy-water reactor at Arak that could eventually have produced spent fuel from which plutonium could be separated. Under the JCPOA:

– The core of that reactor has been removed and filled with concrete to make it unusable

– The reactor is being redesigned so as to “minimise the production of plutonium and not to produce weapon-grade plutonium in normal operation”

– All spent fuel from Arak will be shipped out of Iran, for the reactor’s lifetime

– Iran commits not to engage in reprocessing or reprocessing research activities for 15 years

– Iran can continue to produce heavy water, used as a moderator in reactors like Arak, but its stock is capped around 130 tonnes. It has previously shipped excess amounts abroad for storage or sold them. This restriction lasts 15 years.

MORE INTRUSIVE OVERSIGHT


The JCPOA:

– Requires Iran to apply the IAEA‘s Additional Protocol – which grants the agency wide-ranging inspection powers – and “subsequently seek ratification and entry into force”

– Grants IAEA inspectors daily access to Natanz and Fordow for 15 years

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– Says the deal’s signatories must vet Iran’s purchases of nuclear or dual-use equipment

– Bans Iran from carrying out a range of activities that could contribute to making a nuclear bomb, such as computer simulations of a nuclear explosion or designing certain multi-point detonation systems. In some cases, those activities can be carried out with the other signatories’ approval.





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